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GANGLE, J. (1988). Disinfection of clinic and aviary. Proc. Assoc. of Avian Tech. pp 25-28.
GARDNER, J. F. AND PELL, M. M. (1986). Introduction to Sterilization and Disinfection. Churchill Livingstone, London.
MANDEL, J., HAFEZ, H.M., WOERNLE, H. and KOSTERS, J. (1987). (Efficacy of disinfection methods for broiler breeder eggs contaminated with Salmonella.) Archiv. fur Geflugelkunde 51:16-21.
MORGAN-JONES, S. C. (1981). Cleansing and Disinfection of Farm Buildings. In: Disinfectants: Their Use and Evaluation of Effectiveness. Eds. Collins, C. H., Allwood, M. C., Bloomfield, S. F., and Fox, A. Academic Press, London. pp 201-212.
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WALLACE, J., DODD, J. and MILLETT, M. (1988). Comparison of the sporicidal effect of three disinfectant solutions within an isolator transfer port. Animal Technology 39:189-193.
Appendix 1 - Disinfectants
Name (Manufacturer) : size - Distributor $cost, cost/l concentrate, Use dilution, cost/l diluted.
Ingredients (% active disinfectant)
Javex (Bristol-Myers): 3.6 l - Food & Pharmacy stores $2.50
$0.70/l, 1:32 , $0.022/l.
Sodium Hypochlorite 6%.
Tamed Iodine (Iodophores)
Iosan (WestAgro Canada): 4.0 l - CoOp Stores $17.30,
$4.33/l, 1:333 , $0.013/l.
Phosphoric Acid, 15.95% ; Polyethoxy polypropoxy ethanol-iodine, 4.85% ; Nonylphenoxypoly ethanol-iodine, 12.60% (Provides 1.75% titratable iodine).
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quats)
Multi-san (Diversey Wyandotte Inc.): 5 l - CoOp Stores $18.60,
$3.72/l, 1:160, $0.024/l.
n-Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride, 4.50% ;
n-Alkyl dimethyl ethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 4.50% ;
ethyl alcohol 2.25% (9.0% Ammonium Chlorides, 2.25% Alcohol).
Lysoquat (Winthrop): 4.5 l - Winthrop $16.30, $3.63/l, 1:256, $0.015/l.
Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 1.40% ; Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides 11.2% ; tetrasodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate 2.0% ; isopropyl alcohol 0.5% ; ethyl alcohol 2.8% (12.6% Ammonium Chlorides, 3.3% Alcohol).
Coverage 256 (Calgon Vestal Labs): 3.78 l - Sanofi $30.00, $7.94/l, 1:256, $0.031/l.
Octyl decyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 4.60% ; Dioctyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 2.30% ; Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride 2.30% ; Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides 6.14% (15.34% Ammonium Chlorides).
Lysovet (Winthrop): 4.5 l - Wintrop $31.63, $7.03/l, 1:256, $0.028/l.
Ortho-Phenylphenol 9.2% ; Ortho-Benzyl-para-chlorophenol 8.20% ; p-tert amylphenol 1.70% ; Sodium Dodecylbenzene-sulfonate 3.00% ; Tetrasodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate 2.80%, Isopropyl alcohol 2.60% (19.1% Phenolics, 2.6% Alcohol, 5.8% misc.).
One Stroke (Calgon Vestal Labs): 4.0 l - Sanofi $30.00,
$7.50/l, 1:256, $0.030/l.
Ortho-phenyphenol, 10.0% ; Ortho-benzyl-para-chlorophenol, 8.5%;
Para-tertiary-amylphenol, 2.0% (20.5% Phenolics).
Tek-Trol (Biotek Industries): 3.8 l - Biotek Canada $32.00, $8.45/l, 1;256, $0.033/l.
Ortho-phenyphenol, 14.0% ; Ortho-benzyl-para-chlorophenol, 12.0% (26.0% Phenolics).
0 (National Labs): 4.5 l - Nika Sales $23.37, $5.20/l, 1:80, $0.065/l.
Potassium Ricinoleate 3.3% ; Ortho-Benzyl-para-chlorophenol 3.2%, Sodium xylene sulphonate 2.0% ; Sodium lauryl sulphate 0.6% ; Tetrasodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate 0.6% (3.2% Phenolic, 6.5% misc.).
Glutaraldehyde (Winthrop): 5 l - Through veterinarians, expensive, no diluting. Glutaraldehyde 2%.
Lysofume (Winthrop): 4.5 l - Winthrop $31.07, $6.91/l, 1:128, $0.054/l.
2-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-Nitro-1,3 Propanediol 19.20% ; Formaldehyde 2.02% ; Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 2.29%.
Appendix 2 - Recommended High Pressure Washer/Foamer Models
-Model: Operating Pressure, Water Volume, Voltage, Power, Price.
All of these models come with a cart (except the HD575), high pressure hose, spray gun, wand, and nozzle.
BSM (DeBoer's Farm Equipment Ltd.)
- CP 60 : 1150 PSI, 2.2 GPM, 110 V, 1.5 HP, $ 1,145.
- SAC 100: 1650 PSI, 4.0 GPM, 220 V, 3.0 HP, $ 1,225.
The BSM models are a the best value as they also include a foaming nozzle, while this is an expensive accessory with both Karcher and WAP.
Karcher (Karcher Cleaning Systems Inc.)
- HD 575 : up to 1000 PSI, 0.6-2.2 GPM, 110 V, 1.8 HP, $ 1,295.
- HD 1000: up to 2465 PSI, 0.8-4.4 GPM, 220 V, 7.0 HP, $ 2,295.
The standard nozzles with these Karcher models can changeover to a pencil jet, for a powerful directed spray or to a fan jet which covers a broader area. Karcher is the world's leading cleaning-equipment manufacturer and is based in West-Germany. Their equipment is being using by Exxon to spray down the oil covered beach rocks in Alaska. HARI uses the HD 1000 which removes the paint off the floor when used at full pressure.
WAP (Nika Sales)
- JET: up to 1000 PSI, 2.8 GPM, 110 V, 1.9 HP
- L3000: up to 2400 PSI, 4.5 GPM, 220 V,(5.0 HP)
Nika Sales can rent you a WAP-JET from Friday to Monday for $50. This model has a nozzle which is able to changeover to one that partially foams a disinfectant/detergent but if you buy one of these units it would be better to buy their special foaming nozzle accessory.
Manufacturers' or Distributers' Addresses;
Bio-tek Industries, Canada
11 Rimini Mews
DeBoer's Farm Equipment Ltd.
RR # 1
Karcher Cleaning Systems Inc.
1770 Alstep Drive
Mauco Industries Ltd.
4115 Cousens St.
St. Laurent, Quebec
219 Silercreek Pkwy. North
Pressure Washers with PressureParts.com
Sanofi Animal Health Canada, Inc.
275 Sheldon Dr. Unit #8
Veterinary Laboratory Services Branch
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food
Located at: The University of Guelph
White Cross/Ventech Healthcare, Inc.
5700 Keaton Cres.
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