Artificial Incubation Applied to Small Numbers of Altricial Bird Eggs : Part 6

Appendix 1 - Incubation periods and egg weight loss to pip for successfully hatched eggs.

Species			Near	Loss	Days	Days	%loss	
			Fresh	to pip	of wt.	to	to	
			wt.(g)	wt.(g)	loss	pip	pip	
Blue & Gold Macaw (n=6)								
BGM	A	3	31.40	28.32	20	26	12.8%	
BGM	A	4	30.04	27.64	16	26	13.0%	
BGM	C	1	36.67	33.50	21	26	10.7%	
BGM	D	3	31.45	27.43	23	26	14.4%	
BGM	D	7	28.06	25.84	14	26	14.7%	
BGM	E	1	32.38	30.03	16	26	11.6%	
					        Avg	12.9%	
Double Yellow Headed Amazon (n=8)							
DYA	A	1	20.36	18.12	23	26	12.4%	
DYA	A	3	20.17	18.41	22	26	10.3%	
DYA	A	4	19.52	16.62	22	26	17.6%	
DYA	A	12	19.90	18.15	16	26	14.3%	
DYA	A	13	19.43	17.44	19	26	14.0%	
DYA	A	18	16.40	14.86	19	26	12.8%	
DYA	B	9	19.33	17.33	19	26	14.2%	
DYA	B	10	21.82	19.91	19	26	12.0%	
				               Avg      13.4%	
Moluccan Cockatoo (n=4)								
MLC	B	5	34.14	31.38	27	27	  8.1%	
MLC	B	6	30.78	28.65	22	26	  8.2%	
MLC	B	7	29.48	26.55	26	26	  9.9%	
MLC	D	4	26.23	24.06	19	26	 11.3%	
					        Avg	  9.4%	
Medium-sulphur Crested Cockatoo (n=18)														
MSC	A	5	24.51	21.97	26	26	 10.4%	
MSC	A	6	26.71	24.46	23	26	  9.5%	
MSC	A	7	27.22	23.68	26	26	 13.0%	
MSC	A	13	26.25	23.25	26	26	 11.4%	
MSC	A	14	26.02	23.02	26	26	 11.5%	
MSC	B	4	24.09	21.77	26	26	  9.6%	
MSC	B	5	23.15	21.31	25	26	  8.3%	
MSC	B	7	22.08	20.92	15	26	  9.1%	
MSC	B	8	21.02	19.91	17	26	  8.1%	
MSC	B	9	24.02	22.74	22	26	  6.3%	
MSC	B	12	23.97	21.97	24	26	  9.0%	
MSC	B	13	21.26	19.47	26	26	  8.4%	
MSC	B	14	25.18	22.96	26	26	  8.8%	
MSC	B	15	21.33	19.98	20	26	  8.2%	
MSC	B	16	23.55	21.66	18	26	 11.6%	
MSC	B	20	24.29	22.21	24	26	  9.3%	
MSC	B	22	23.64	21.25	23	26	 11.4%	
MSC	C	7	24.05	21.70	25	26	 10.2%	
					        Avg	  9.7%	

Appendix 2 - Small Sized Incubators, Accurate Balances and Distributors Addresses.


All of these models are forced air circulated incubators. Some of the cabinet units have hatching trays at the bottom of the incubator but these may not provide the proper environment for maximum hatching rates. Most of the units made overseas run on 220 V, but can be connected by your electrician. To import units from overseas requires more paper work and takes several months to ship by sea.

Manufacturer (Distributer)
Model: Counter top dome or Cabinet type, Manual or Automatic turning, Thermal Wafer or Solid State temperature control, Automatic humidity and/or cooling control, Grid, Egg Rollers or tray egg holders, Maximum capacity of 3.0-3.5 cm diameter eggs (referred to as pheasant size which is similar to the average parrot egg), Cost.

A.B. Incubators Ltd.;

A.B. Newlife 25 MkII: Dome, Auto, Solid state, Auto. humidity, 3 small trays, 25 eggs, $855. Can. landed.
A.B. Newlife 75 MkII: Dome, Auto, Solid state, Auto. humidity, 3 med. trays, 75 eggs, $1000. Can. landed.
A.B. Multilife 290: Cabinet, Auto, Solid state, Auto. humidity, 3 lg. trays, 290 eggs, $2740. Can. landed.
Formed in 1986 to produce and to update the designs introduced by Dr. Anderson-Brown. Good quality but expensive to import. Their egg trays/cradles come in four different sizes which can mixed as inserts, therefore allowing most sizes of eggs to be incubated at the same time. They produce a “Humidistat” which automatically adds water onto an absorbent pad when an increase in humidity is required (note that it can not reduce humidity below ambient). The “Humidistat” can be bought separately and added to any small incubator.

ARA Professional Incubator

ARA Professional Incubator: Egg Cap. 70 Amazon or 50 Macaw, Table Top, Auto Turn, Auto Temp, Solid State, Egg Tray $2100. US. (exludes local taxes & delivery).


Octagon 20: Egg Cap. 20-40, Table top, Auto Turn, Auto Temp, Solid State, Egg Tray $283. US.
Ocatagon 100: Egg Cap. 100-280, Table top, Auto Turn, Auto Temp, Solid State, Egg Tray $1096. US.

Auto Humidity Module $384
Prices includes shipping.

Curfew Incubators;

Mod.236: Table Top, Auto, Solid state, Egg Rollers, 50 eggs, About $ 600. Can. landed.
Mod RX-200: Cabinet, Auto Temp and Humidity, Solid state, Rollers, Backup Heater, Alarm, 110 V, 120 eggs, about $ 1,800. Can landed.
Mod. RX 201: Cabinet, Auto Temp, Solid state, Egg Rollers, 40 eggs, about $ 900. Can. landed.
One of the oldest incubator manufacturers in the world; in business since 1896. Their dome models are the still air type. Their cabinet incubators appear to be reasonably priced with all of the important features, therefore are an excellent value. HARI now uses the RX-200 with 95% of fertile eggs hatching.

G.Q.F. Manufacturing Co. (Berry Hill Ltd.);

1202 Sportsman: Cabinet, Auto, Wafer, 3 lg.trays, 375 eggs, $ 280 US.
Economical cabinet incubator used by some large and successful American breeders. Made of wood cabinet which insulates well but is difficult to clean. Fumigation, which may be too dangerous for the hobby breeder, is one of the only ways to penetrate the pores of wood and disinfect. An accurate solid state temperature control, (for instance the one made by Humidaire C.) should perhaps be installed to replace the wafer thermostat.

Grumbach (Swan Creek Supply);

8014-Compact S72: Cabinet, Auto, Solid State, Auto. Humidity, 2 trays, 84 eggs, $ 1260 US.
8013-BSS 120: Cabinet, Auto, Solid State, Auto. Humidity, 3 trays, 144 eggs, $ 1839 US.
8203-BSS 250: Cabinet, Auto, Solid State, Auto Humidity, 6 trays, 288 eggs, $ 2440 US.
Manufactured in Germany and destined to become very popular units in America due to their excellent quality. These highly accurate incubators feature a special rolling device for smooth, slow and assured egg turning. The turning mechanism is adjustible for all sizes of eggs, degree of turn and the number of times turned. All surfaces of the incubating chamber, a poly vinyl coated metal, can be easily disinfected except the water compartment for the source of humidity. Easily read digital instruments are an available option. Rather expensive units.

Rolf C. Hagen, Inc. (Pet Stores);

Hagen Hatcher Set Up: Composed of one submersible "Thermal Compact" 150 W aquarium heater
# A-706, one clear plastic "Critter Pen" # H-302, two small 2.5 gal aquariums # A-1320, $ 108. suggested retail. An inexpensive, easy to clean set up, to provide warm moist heat to hatching eggs or act as a brooder (see text for an explanation on their use).

Humidaire Co. (Berry Hill Ltd.);

Mod. 20: Cabinet, Auto, Solid state, 2 trays, 76 eggs, $ 640 US.
Mod. 21: Cabinet, Auto, Solid state, 2 lg.trays, 170 eggs, $ 861 US.
Mod. 50: Drum-type, Auto, Solid state, 3 lg.trays, 540 eggs, $ 1714 US.
Rather expensive incubators made of redwood cabinets. Humidaire states that their interior wooden walls are sealed for reduced moisture transfer and bacteria resistance. Their tray frames are made of wood and screen with the eggs setting in V-shaped screen inserts. Its advisable to get model 20 & 21 with the solid state temperature control which is an option from the american manufacturer. Berry Hill sells these models with this excellent temperature controller already added. One large American breeder did not have good results with his drum-type incubator and its now collecting dust. Humidaire have been in business since 1931 and provides a long list of organizations who they say are using their equipment.

Kuhl Corporation;

TPT - 120: Dome, Auto, 2x Wafer, 4 trays, 184 eggs, $ 412. US
AT-600: Cabinet, Auto, 2x Wafer, 20 trays, 920 eggs, $ 1,344. US
Their plastic tray system allows for secure positioning of eggs and complete turning. As with A.B. Incubators, Kuhl egg trays come in different sizes allowing diverse sizes of parrot eggs to be set in the same incubator. The recommended trays for parrot breeders would be WAS-30 for large eggs e.g. macaw, PBT-46 for most eggs e.g. amazon and cockatoo, and Q-80 for smaller eggs e.g. conure and pionus. Their Units are better insulated than those of Marsh Farms. A good value with the large number of different sized eggs they can hold.

Lyon Electric Company, Inc. {was Marsh Farms} (Berry Hill Ltd.);

Roll-X2: Dome, Auto 1/hr, Solid state, 1 grid, 109 eggs, $ 337 US.
Profi-I: Cabinet, Auto 1/hr, Solid state, 7 trays, 322 eggs, $ 995 US.
Popular American units now with more accurate and reliable temperature control. Still some concerns over the grid turning system which needs a separate and rather expensive grid for different sizes of eggs. Units are not well insulated and radiant cooling of eggs may occur if room temperature too low. If buying a Roll-X do not buy an old unit as their old thermal wafer temperature control is too inaccurate for parrot eggs. However, Evans (1988) found his Roll-X to have certain spots 30F hotter even with the solid state temperature controls. Excessive vibrations are also a concern yet many of these units are successfully hatching eggs.

Masalles Comercial, s.a.;

Mod.25: Cabinet, Auto, Solid state, 3 lg.trays, 364 eggs, about $ 900 US.
This is a well built incubator from Spain with good value. However the small manufacturer supplied water tray dries up quickly. We experienced poor hatching when we used the hatching tray at the bottom of this unit. We then developed our Hagen hatcher set up and used the hatching tray in the incubator to hold deep microwave pans which provide water for at least a week. We use the Kuhl egg trays which fit into the Mod. 25 trays. The unit is very accurate in its temperature control and has a turner counter to verify turner operation. Well insulated and easy to clean.

Masalles Home Page


C 21: Cabinet, Auto, Solid state, Auto. humidity and cooling, 2 lg.trays, 396 eggs, $ 3,170. US.
C 41: Cabinet, Auto, Solid state, Auto. humidity and cooling, 4 lg.trays, 792 eggs, $ 3,380. US.
One of the only small incubator lines that has built in cooling with both minimum and maximum temperature and humidity controls. Well insulated cabinet is easy to clean and trays come in various sizes. Water line connection and alarms make for continuous worry free operation. The Mercedes Benz of incubators, made in Holland; excellent quality but at a price. However serious consideration should be given to this line by professional breeders who live in hot and/or humid climates.

Stone House Enterprises;

"R" 1 and "R" 2 fan powered remote auto. humidifiers, $ 175 US.
An add-on to your existing incubator. With this unit higher levels of humidity can be achieved with more consistent levels.

Electronic Weighing Balances

Manufacturer (Distributer);
Model: Maximum capacity, readability, cost US $.

A&D (Johns Scientific Inc.);
EK-1200A: 1200 g, 0.1 g, $ 415.
FX-3200: 3100 g, 0.1 g and 0.01 g up to 600 g, $ 1150.
The EK-1200A has a good capacity for even large birds plus the accuracy to weigh eggs and tiny babies. It has a nice large rectangle pan for steady placement of weighing dishes and is a good value.

Digital Scale (Magic Fan);
CR 107: 2000 g, 1.0 g, $ 53.
Economical scale with a capacity that will meet most of the needs of a breeder but too inaccurate for egg weighing.

Ohaus (Technical Marketing Associates Ltd.; Cole-Parmer Co.);
C305: 300 g, 0.1 g, $ 200.
CT600: 600 g, 0.1 g, $ 395.
CT1200: 1200 g, 0.1 g, $ 495.
E4000D: 4000 g, 0.1 g and 0.01 g up to 400 g, $ 1,195.
The C305 would be an accurate second scale to compliment the CR 107 above. The CT series pans are rather small and they are more expensive than the similar A&D scale above. The E4000D is a more accurate balance for weighing eggs.

Moisture balance, analytical balances, Avian/Ratite/Zoo/Veterinary - Precision Weighing Balances. Models: Ohaus, Acculab

Thermometry and Hygrometry

Cole-Parmer Instrument Company distribute a wide selection of psychrometers, which use the wet bulb method, and digital hygrometers with probes, to measure humidity and digital temperature monitors.
The Cole-Parmer temperature Sentry is a digital monitor plus a high/low alarm with a good accuracy of + 0.2oC (Cat. no. N-08355-32 $ 185). They also carry very accurate glass thermometers; cat no. N-08004-44 having the scale range, 20o-50oC + 0.1oC, best suited for incubation temperatures ($28.70 - length 37 cm with an immersion depth of 7.6 cm). It is important to expose the listed immersion depth of the thermometer to achieve accurate readings.

Manufacturers' or Distributors Addresses

A.B. Incubators Ltd.
40 Old Market Street
Mendlesham, Suffolk

Berry Hill Ltd.
75 Burwell Road
St.Thomas, Ontario
N5P 3R5

Brinsea Products Inc
3670 S Hopkins Avenue
Titusville, FL 32780, USA
Phone: (407) 267-7009
Fax: (407) 267-6090
Supply to Canada, USA, Central & South America.

Brinsea Products Ltd
Station Road
N. Somerset BS25 5RA
Phone:44 (0) 1934 823039
Fax: 44 (0) 1934 820250
This division exports to the rest of the world.

Cole-Parmer Instrument Company
7425 North Oak Ave.
Chicago, Illinois

Curfew Incubators
Southminster Rd.
Althorne, Chelmsford
Essex CM 3 6EN
Fax: 01621 742680
Tel: 01621 741923

G.Q.F. Manufacturing Co.
P.O. Box 1552
Savannah, GA
31498 USA

Grumbach Brutgerate GmbH
c/o Swan Creek Supply
12240 Spencer Rd.
Saginaw, Michigan 48603 USA

Humidaire Co.
217 West Wayne St.
New Madison, Ohio
45346 USA

Jackco Company Ltd.
248 Pennsylvania Ave.
Virginia Beach, VA. 23462 USA

Johns Scientific Inc.
175 Hanson St.
Toronto, Ont.
M4C 1A7

Kuhl Corporation.
P.O. Box 26
Flemington, N.J.
08822-0026 USA

Lyon Electric Company, Inc.
2765 Main Street
Chula Vista, California
92011 USA

Magic Fan
2173 Lawrence Ave. E.
Scarborough, Ontario
M1P 2P5

Masalles Comercial, s.a.
Dosrius 38
Barcelona - 35
Masalles Home Page

3130 Verona Ave.
Buford, Georgia
30518 USA

Precision Weighing Balances
"Electronic Wegighing Balances"
Precision's Home Page

Stone House Enterprises
4298 Bishop Lane
Henderson, KY 42420 USA

Technical Marketing Associates Ltd.
6695 Millcreek Drive, Unit # 1
Mississauga, Ont.
L5N 9Z9

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