Nutritional Observations, Hand-Feeding Formulas,
and Digestion in Exotic Birds

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  2. Scott ML, Nesheim MC, Young RJ: Nutrition of the Chicken (ed 3), Ithaca, NY, M.L. Scott, 1982.

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  17. Worth G: Personal communication, August 1990.

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  19. Silva T: Amonograph of endangered parrots. Pickering Ontario, Canada, Silvio Mattacchione, 1989.

  20. Ullrey DE, Allen ME, Baer DJ: Formulated diets versus seed for psittacines, J Nutr 121:S193-S205, 1991 (suppl).

  21. Drewes L, Flammer K: Preliminary data on aerobic microflora of baby psittacine birds. Proceedings of the Jean Delacour/IFCB Symposium on Breeding Birds in Captivity, Hollywood, CA, 1983, pp 73-81.

  22. Jerrett S.A. Goodge WR: Evidence for amylase in avian salivary glands. J Morph 139:27-46 1978.

  23. Homberger DG: The lingual Apparatus of the african grey parrot. Psittacus Erithacus dinne (Aves: Psittacidae): Description and theoretical analysis. Ornithological Monographs 39, Washington, DC, American Ornithologists' Union, 1986.

  24. Flammer K: Pediatric medicine, in Harrison GJ, Harrison LR (eds): Clinical Avian Medicine Surgery, Philadelphia, PA, Saundes, 1986, pp 634-650.

  25. Joyner KL: The use of a lactobacillus product in a psittacine hand-feeding diet; its effect on normal aerobic microflora early weight gain, and health. Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 1988, pp 127-137.

  26. Gerlach H: Repulsion of Enterobaceriaceae by using Lactobacilli. Proceedings of the Second International Parrot Convention, Loro Parque, 1990, pp E1-E17.

  27. Hill KJ: Thephysiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl, new York, NY, Academic Press, 1971.

  28. Griminger P: Digestive system and nutrition, in Abs M(ed): Physiology and Behaviour of the pigeon. New York, NY, Academic Press, 1983, pp 19-40.

  29. Duke GE: Alimentary canal: Anatomy, regulation of feeding, and motility, in Sturkie PD (ed): Avian Physiology, New York, NY, Springer-Verlag, 1986, pp 269-287.

  30. Hill KJ: The structure of the alimentary tract, in Bell DJ, Freeman BM (eds): Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl, New York, NY, Academic Press, 1971.

  31. Evans HE: Anatomy of the budgerigar, in Petrak MI, (ed) Diseases of Cage and Aviary Birds (ed 2). Philadelphia, PA, Lea & Febiger, 1982. pp 111-187.

  32. Duke GE: Alimentary canal: Secretion and digestion, special digestive functions, and absorption, in Sturkie PD (ed): Avian Physiology, New York NY, Springer- Verlag, 1986, pp 289-302.

  33. Ziswiler V, Farner DS: Digestion and the digestive system, in Farner DS. King JR (eds): Avian Biology, vol2. New York, NY Academic Press, 1972, pp 343- 430.

  34. Hill KJ: Physiology of the digestive tract, in Freeman VM (ed): Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl, vol 4, New York, NY, Academic Press, 1983, pp 31-49.

  35. McLelland J: Digestive System, in King AS, McLelland J (eds): Form and Function in Birds, vol.1. New York, NY, Academic Press, 1979, pp 69-181.

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